Networking Terms You Really Need To Know

In this article, we are going to discuss some basic Networking Terms. As the networking term is vague so the terms are. There are hundreds of technologies and networking terms. All of them cannot be covered but the basic understanding of the basic of networking terms will be discussed in this post.

Basic Networking Terms in Computers

1. Server

A server is a device that provides services. It is mostly a computer that contains the files of a website and sends those files when a user requests them.
When you enter a URL in your address bar you are asking for that page to show and it’s not the website that contains the page, it is a computer that has that page stored and this computer is called Server. But it’s not only limited to websites, it can be any device that provides services/information.
In simple words, a computer that uploads data for users is called a server.

2. Client

A user of a service is called a Client. You are downloading stuff? You are a client. Do you visit a web page? You are a client. That’s pretty simple, A computer that downloads something from a server is called a Client.

3. Cache

Whenever we do something the software has to do some processing right? Yep, and it takes time. But some programs/devices have a feature that can store information about the tasks that the user does often so it can give faster results when the same task is requested by the user.
This process is called Caching and the stored data is called Cache.

4. Cookies

Now that’s a delicious word but a cookie means something totally different in the case of networking.
Let’s take an example, I am using Facebook and my mom calls me for lunch so I turn off my data connection and I turn it on sometime after lunch
Now I open Facebook again and here is what happens:
Me: Opens Facebook
Facebook: Login to continue
Me: WTF man? It’s me! Do I need to log in every time? I mean this is really annoying mate.
Facebook: But this is a security check, sir! But if you find it annoying then you can show us a cookie instead.
Me: Cookie? What’s that?
Facebook: Every time you log into your Facebook Account we send a small piece of data to you called Cookie. It helps us to identify that it’s you.
Me: Oh that’s cool.

Well yeah, this is what a cookie does, it is sent by a website and stored in your browser. It tells the website about the previous interactions you have made with the website so the website can provide you with better services.

5. Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)

Do you guys know what is a LAN? Well “A group of computers which share a common Internet connection is called Local Area Network.” So if 3 computers use the same router they are in LAN.
But there is something interesting about LAN when two computers in a LAN want to connect to each other then IP Address is not sufficient, we need MAC Address too. But as I told you before that when a data packet is sent it contains the IP Address and Port number but not MAC Address. So how they can know the MAC Addresses of each other? Well, that’s where Address Resolution Protocol comes into play.
Let’s imagine two computers A and B are in a LAN and Computer A wants to connect to Computer B so can A connect directly to B? No. They have to verify if this is the same computer they want to connect to.
Let us see how it works:

1. Computer A sends an ARP to request it’s like asking “Hi! I was looking for a computer with IP Address and I think that’s you! And it looks like we are in a LAN so can you please tell me what your MAC Address is?
2. Computer B sends him a confirmation like “Yeah bro! That’s me and here is my MAC Address”.
3. Computer A “Yeah now we can establish a connection” and then Computer A builds a cache where it can store the MAC Address of Computer B so that it can connect faster next time.

This is what ARP does, it asks for MAC Address before connection if the target computer is in LAN.

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